Monday, February 17, 2020

Research Article Summary (Organizational Behaviour) Essay

Research Article Summary (Organizational Behaviour) - Essay Example Avolio and Howell in their article suggest that transformational leadership has three measures that define the performance of managers and these measures are linked with local of control and innovation. The article also discusses how transactional leadership is connected to manager performance but is negatively linked unlike transformational leadership. Dubinsky and Yammarino suggest in their article that that transformational leadership can be studied at the level of individuals, dyads and groups to understand how their performance is impacted by this leadership method. Dubinsky and Yammarino further define four hypotheses for their levels of analysis or evaluation on how transformational leadership is based on and is affected by individual differences, differences in dyads within groups, differences between dyads and between each of them, cross level: â€Å"Hypothesis 1: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory (five previously stated expectations) will hold at the individual level of analysis; that is, they are based on individual differences† â€Å"Hypothesis 2: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory will hold at the dyads-within-groups level of analysis; that is, they are based on differences among dyads within groups.† â€Å"Hypothesis 4: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory will be cross-level in nature, holding at three levels of analysis; that is, they are based on individual differences, between-dyads differences, and differences among dyads within groups.† To understand how business performance can be impacted through transformational leadership and whether performance is a direct result of transformational leadership, the following hypotheses have been designed by Avolio and Howell: Hypotheses 3a, 3b, and 3c: Charismatic leadership, leadership based on intellectual stimulation, and leadership based on individualized

Monday, February 3, 2020

Trade unionism in the UK Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Trade unionism in the UK - Essay Example They organise a particular section of skilled or unskilled workers and with them as members of the Union, the office bearers become the legal representatives of such workers and union by attaining the power of representing them in all matters of employment and thus, in most of the countries they attain the status of an important legal entity. They negotiate collectively on behalf of their members over pay, working hours, wages, terms and conditions, cleanliness, perks, benefits, pensions, etc. If bargaining fails, Unions can undertake industrial action and strike and can cause immense harm to a well-running business and in major cases, to the economy of the entire country. Since the late 1970s there had been a rapid decline in unionisation in UK. This failure had been attributed to the inability of unions to organise new establishments in the same lines as they did twenty years ago, though it is not as simple as that. "The sharpest falls in unionization occurred in private manufacturing establishments set up post-1980, with significant falls also occurring, but from a lower initial level, in private sector services" There had been overwhelming arguments that the age of establishments has a lot to do with the decline of unions. Younger organisations pitted against the older ones, have shown totally different trends of conducting business, recruiting people, retaining them, or even retrenching them, to which unions are not fast enough to adjust themselves. "Finally, there is some evidence that age of workplace, rather than age of worker, is the critical age based factor as the negative association with unionization is found for all age groups in workplaces set up post-1980" ibid. Unions of yore had different sets of principles and ways of working. They were mainly centralised with highly centred authority wielded by the Union Leaders, who could sway the entire massive group of workers by a word or deed. In recent years, this trend has received a set back, with more and more vociferous demands by workers for a democratic set up. "Since the 1960s a democratic ethos has developed within the trade union movement Whilstleaderships may be formally in control, their power is constrained and checked on a number of issues (Hodgson 1981: 135)", in Webb (1992, p.83). Lately, there had been extensive arguments about the possible reasons for decline of Trade Unions in Britain. As a matter of fact, it is a universal trend, which came before the globalisation started and Britain had only been part of it. Her participation in the decline could not be stemmed and we have to agree that the influence and strength of trade unions have definitely suffered a major set back, with managements having an upper hand in every situation. "In the economic arena, unions face more confident managements, implementing politics of restructuring often without explicit reference to Unions. No longer are trade union leaderships party to the formulation of policy and programmes which take into account the specific concerns and interests of their memberships," Fairbrother (2000, p.10). The trend started with a steady decline in trade union membership. In last three decades and to put it mildly, it had been

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Market Strategy Of Titan Watches

Market Strategy Of Titan Watches During late 2008 and 2009 confidence of consumer fell and people became more aware about their spending in watches and jewellery has not been immune to the economic climate. During 2005 jewellery and watches market grew by 10 % were it reaches to  £4.8 billion in 2010 and over next five year Mintel forecasts is 11%growth in watches and jewellery market. Hence 2011 is also going to be the year to invest in mens jewellery. Stephen Webster presented a strong case for mens jewellery at IJL in September 2010, and assuming male customer only want watches and the odd signet or chain could lead to missing out on a potential wealth of customer. Its not that male customers dont want it: they just dont know they want it. Men dont have thinking about what to wear as women do, explain Webster. But once a man is bejewelled, theres no looking back. They also dont wait for special occasions like woman do, and they can go from zero to jewellery enthusiast in no time. Market research company Mintels September 2010 report Watches and Jewellery Retailing UK found that 20% of male respondent said they like receiving jewellery as a gift, and 12% said that they had purchased all of their own jewellery. So the market is clearly there to be exploited. Rapid increase in gold prices and recession change many consumers mind to buy silver instead of gold, this trend is rising to nearly three in ten women with almost one in five people wearing silver jewellery than gold; particularly young people aged 15-24. Now days Consumers are willing to experiment and try new looks with little minimising their bank balances which means many costume jewellery items are affordable and easy disposable without denting their bank balance. Young aged under-35 is more open to pay large amounts for watches these are consumers who do not wear jewellery to express their individuality or to show their consumer spending power. As the research has should that 86% of consumers wear a watch, were 40% only buy a new watch when their old watch is broken. The new reason for purchase a watch could be watchs main function with health benefits as a new way of helping the consumer. Executive Summary: Why buy me. Can be better explain by to fend off the competition by constant innovation, reinvigorate, recalibrate, update. Many brands and companies are continuously renovating their business and holding positioning themselves for growth. Positioning able offerings for brands and availability of product in the market. Several key target groups and users meet their needs as it reaches a certain mode of consumers and delivers benefits to them. Consumer and user are attributed by benefits and product as they are depended on how actual approach of a company or brands position communicates in the market place. As a result positioning or product of a company find one to keep further distance itself from competitors which is based on list of items, but very importantly in six key :, Distribution, Quality, Attributes, Product, Price and Usage Occasions. As compared to earlier times consumerism has undergone a sea change where the consumers are informed about the products. Hence, the market has become customer centric. Understanding the importance of customer is become the structure of business; in effects companies have started in regular basis i.e. repositioning exercise. In the recent times Titian Industries Ltd had a major brand repositioning exercise was planned more in order to provide more to its customers. Now the company holds new position. This study will help to understand the revived positioning strategies of Titan watches. An analysis of repositioning strategies of Titan also forms of the study. Firstly it is important to understand the overall wrist watch industry in UK. Secondly to study the brand positioning and re-positioning strategy of Titan wrist watches and to find out about the loyal customers of Titan watches as they are aware of the new positioning strategies of the company and how they used them. To study primary and secondary data have been used. Analysis UK wrist watch industry and brand repositioning strategies of TITAN Company has been analysed and completed on the basis of secondary data. Internet, journals, books and magazines have been used for this purpose. Project comprises conducting a questionnaire survey. (function() { var scribd = document.createElement("script"); scribd.type = "text/javascript"; scribd.async = true; scribd.src = ""; var s = document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(scribd, s); })() Introduction: 1.1 Theory and concepts: According to Peter Drucker A business has two and only two basic functions: marketing and innovation To maintain business relevance and market position, it is important to continuously innovate and invent brand image in the market to pace with change and intense competitive pressure in the marketplace. In this context, now days brand positioning and revitalization strategies have become a business vital part for battling brand erosion. Further heightened for brand repositioning is because of rising cost and high risk connected with launching a new brand in market. Increase in the cost and high risk related with launching a new brand that is a part of brand reposition. Brand reposition has received very importance in the marketing literature and treated as a difference of brand positioning. Reposition can be required as the market changes and new opportunities occur. In order to reach the customer which was never targeted at first can also be targeted with brand reposition. In order to change its image in the market it is important to focus towards brand repositioning, although it is one of the toughest and harder actions for repositioning of familiar brand in market. As per Solomon, essential part in the marketing efforts is position strategy because companies have to use the elements in the marketing mix to influence the customers understanding the position. There has to be several choices to be, so to as to be in more attractive and relevant position. It is important for the person who is reposition for the reposition to know and understand why reposition is necessary and its need, and if the offer is the one that will change or just the brand name. While repositioning it is important to undertake and understand all the risk factors that is likely to affect it in the market. A company risks its credibility and reliability more while repositioning its brand in the market and the need for a thorough strategy is very important to avoid any occurrence. Some analyst argues that to successfully reposition a established brand name is almost impossible because repositioning of a brand can make the most loyal customer to switch brand. If the brand is eroded then brand reposition becomes important. Numerous attempts to reposition brand in the market may fail which is testified by many company for example while soft drink has successfully been able to connect with the youth though they exist for 40 years in the market but at the same Levis, jeans has been losing its market share to newcomers such as The Gap despite numerous campaigns designed to reposition the brand trend. 1.2 Literature Review: The reposition strategy is defined into three stages that is: Introductory Elaboration Fortification This involves the introduction of a new or a repositioned brand, seeking underline the brands value over others, and to broaden the brand position. It is truly hard to change the customers perceived attitude towards a brand, and therefore the risk is great that the attempt to repositioning might fail. After rolling out the strategy, it is time to modify the proposition through update of the personality and through repositioning. There pros and cons with both of this segments and it is great significance that they are truly calculate when deciding the next step in the process. To understand it more deeply Figure 1: Stages in brand strategy development. When a company modifies or change something that is already there in the market established in the mind of the customer that is called as repositioning. Different profession and individuals have different meaning and understanding towards Repositioning. There are few different definitions and greater understanding about this concept: Repositioning is a change, principally about triggering the vision, mission and value in a new direction that is more suited f or the brand in the future- Brand manager consultant. Principally, reposition concerns changing the consumers perception of the brand PR consultant. Repositioning is built upon the change of unique and differentiated associations with the brand in some kind of direction; it is about having a balance between the category party and differentiation when using reposition strategies (Leading Brand strategies) From these definitions, it is obvious that reposition is about moving something to more attractive and relevant position. Reposition direction is often decided as to what a company wants to achieve. There is also a visible relation between price and quantity aspects. When a company perceives the market as a demand curve, the purpose is to down stretch or upward curve. When moving up and there is a need for reaching the premium segment and expand up wards. Figure: The principle of reposition. When striving towards a new position in the market, it is important to understand those consumers are limited. Peoples minds select what to remember and it is important to convince the consumers with greater arguments. The market always strive for change which is rapid and therefore repositioning can be necessary to meet these demands, newer and stronger arguments have to be established to convinced them to stay as loyal customers. As repositioning is a very complicated matter and therefore there are no detailed theories or models. Aim for repositioning is different for different person, and the only connection between all the different theories is that repositioning is moving something from somewhere towards a greater position at the market. Corstjens and Doyle (1989) identified three types of repositioning strategies: Zero repositioning, which is not a repositioning at all since the firm maintains its initial strategy in the face of a changing environment. Gradual repositioning, where the firm performs incremental, continuous adjustments to its positioning strategy to reflect the evolution of its environment; and Radical repositioning that corresponds to a discontinuous shift towards a new target market and /or a new competitive advantage. After learning the repositioning of several brands from the UK market, the following 8 types of repositioning have been identified. These are: Increasing relevance to the consumer Increasing occasions for use Making the brand serious Falling sales Bringing in new customers Making the rand contemporary Differentiate from other brands Changed market conditions A four phased brand repositioning approach can be followed to achieve the intended benfits- Phase I. Determining the current status of the brand Phase II. What does the brand stand for today? Phase III. Developing the brand positioning platforms Phase IV. Refining the brand Positioning and Management Presentation The advantages that can be derived from brand repositioning exercises can be summarized as: Value over others Updated personality Relevant position The risks associated with such strategies are: Loss of focus Neglecting original customers Losing credibility for the brand Confusing the brand Therefore, in order UNLEARN the brand positioning one must help the customer to know brand repositioning in more difficult than initially positioning. This can be done by: Carefully crafted communication New products, packaging Associations with other brands ( co- branding, co- marketing, ingredient branding, strategic alliances, etc) that reinforce the new brand positioning. This exercise is so critical to an organizations success that the organizations and leader in marketing/brand management should develop skill preferably with the help and facilitation of an outside brand positioning expert. Research Methodology: 2.1 Objectives To study the current scenario of UK wrist watch industry. To review the brand positioning strategies of different sub-brands of watches. To analyze the brand repositioning strategies of watches. To study consumer awareness and perception about the brand repositioning strategies of watches. This study will help to understand the gap in its communication strategy regarding brand repositioning exercises and the further measures to be taken for effective marketing communications. 2.2 Limitations: The study is confined to London area only There is possibility of sampling errors in the study The responses of the consumers may not be genuine Questionnaire may not be comprehensive 2.3 Sources of Data Collection: The relevant data was collected from both primary sources and secondary sources. The starting point of my information gathering has been the secondary sources such as internet, books, and journals and so on. Firstly, brand positioning and repositioning strategies of Titan, secondary sources such as internet, insurance magazines, and journals and so on. Then I conducted a consumer awareness survey on brand repositioning strategies undertaken by Titan watches in recent times. 2.4 Sampling: To conduct sampling of 50 loyal consumers of Titan and in the age group of 20 30 years for this study. Since Titan has taken up brand repositioning strategies since January 2011, consumers who have seen the previous and new campaigns have been targeted. 2.5 Primary data: Data was collected through an interview schedule, consisting of both open ended and closed ended questions. It consisted of the parameters like reasons consumers brand preference, recollection of earlier tagline and advertisement, brand ambassador of Titan awareness of new tagline and campaign featuring sportsmen and actors from International body and so on. The data was collected through e-mails, telephone contacts and one to one personal interviews. Industry Overview UK Watch industry: In 2004 and 2008 market report examines the jewellery and watches market in UK were fluctuated and fell by 2.8% and finish at  £4.33 billion in the review report. Large declined in 2008 contribute to the global economic downturn and UK recession which adversely effected nearly all UK industries. The only unaffected by the downturn was the luxury end of the market end, but by the 2008 and 2009 it begun to take effect on it. In recent year the jewellery and watches become increasingly competitive. Although this market have wide range of suppliers and retailers also online retailing have contributed highly for transparent for information on pricing and availability of products. This was a positive trend for small brands that was previously unable to deal with consumer directly. Some larger retailers and few independents have developed their transactional sites to deal with their consumer demand. The product which have high rate of consumer penetration with around a third of the UK population owning piece jewellery and watches. In 2009 downturn in UK economy shows that it will affect all areas of consumer spending and unlikely to show reversal in near future. It seems the concepts of a wrist watch have become that of a status symbol rather than a practical chronometer. According to a survey that suggest one in seven people in the UK has no need for watch, apart from as a fashion accessory. Gadgets such as iPods, laptops and mobile phone, represent threat to the watch industry, survey conducted by Mintel. Even in the age of iPhones, people spend huge amount of money on a quality time piece, with high-end brands such as Rolex and Tag Heuer adorning blinged up wrist of rappers, bankers and fashionistas alike. SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE UK WATCH INDUSTRY: Strengths: Watch industry is growing industry which faster rate As the population is rising, the watch market is also expanding Customers are not very price sensitive as far as quality watch is concerned Weakness: There is not much advertising done by watch industry No innovation in products There are few number of exclusive showrooms that reduces the consumers accessibility to the product There are few marketers, who are concentrated only upon a particular niche segment (Tag Heuer ) Opportunities: There is more need of fashionable luxury watch and fine luxury watch brands that can be targeted in UK, as customers are more like trendsetter and fashionable. UK especially London is a metropolitan city which makes it more attractive for the new company. Youth are more brand conscious than their predecessors. That leads to the expansion of the market for branded watches. Threats: There are many foreign players entering in the race Too many players will dilute the market and the profit margin. Mobile phones acting as substitutes of the watches. The Indian watch industry began in the year 1961 with the commissioning of the watch division of Titan. The first watch model manufactured by HMT was the Janata model in the year 1962. HMT was the leader in the watch market till the Tatas formed Titan watches in association with Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation in the year 1987. They took a major strategy decision, which later changed the face of the Indian watch market to manufacture only quartz watches. Liberalisation in 1992 and removal of quantitative restrictions due to WTO has opened the doors for many the Indian market viz. Tissot, Swatch, Omega, Rado, TAGHeuer. The import duties on watches are falling which makes the Indian market look attractive for the global majors like Casio, Swatch and Citizen. Company Profile: Overview Titan is one of the largest watch producer in India and sixth largest in the world. Titan manufactures over 7 million watches per annum and have 65 million customer. In 1984 titan was established as a joint venture between the Tata Group and Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation. Manufacturing in a state- of -the art at Hosur, Tamil Nadu the company brought the large change in Indian market, by offering quartz technology with international styling. By understanding the different segments in the market, the company launched its second brand Sonata watch, as value brand for those who like styled watches with affordable prices. In last two decade the company has build an very good impression in watch business to become Indias largest manufacturer and world largest sixth manufacturer of watches. This was mainly because good formidable distribution network. Being one of largest retail chain of exclusive retail showroom for watches called The world of Titan spread over 100 towns. Titan have branches over 30 countries, its also have multi brand outlets named Time Zone, service centres and dealer outlets. The company has watch plant at Dehradun (UP) and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and electronic circuit boards in Goa. The promoters held majority stake of the company, with Tidco having 28% of the shares and Tata Group companies owing 25% of the shares and the public sharing holding around 28% in the company. The rest of the stake held by the foreign institution, non resident Indian, mutual fund and other institution. It also acquiring a license for global brands such as Tommy Hilfiger and Hugo Boss, while. It has also in its portfolio its first Swiss Made watch brand Xylys. In 1995 the company capitalize to brand Tanishq as diversified into jewellery in fragmented market operating no brand in urban city. Also in 2005 the company launched its second Jewellery brand, GoldPlus, as using its opportunity for capitalizing in small town and rural India. Its also diversified into fashion Eyewear by launching Fastrack Eye Gear sunglasses as well as prescription eyewear. TITAN WATCHES: BRAND POSITIONING STRATEGIES Overall strategies: Since from the beginning Titan has been positioned as a premium brand, because its high quality products for its customer. Titan is struggling to have a strong brand image in UK market due to its numerous sub-brands that caters to different segments in India. It follows different positioning strategies; these strategies can also be analyzed as given below: Attribute Positioning: The company launched first quartz watches to Indian market as its product. The company successfully penetrate the market by this launch, under this strategy came Raga, Classique and Regalia. Classique positioned as style corporate wear that leaves a quiet definite impression and qualities of function. Regalia ranger represent the elegant-wear. Raga is an exclusive watch as positioned. The Raga and silver Raga collection of style, delicate and feminine with each piece unique truly. User Positioning: Titan provides to several user groups children (the Dash), sportspersons and adventurers. The fastrack range is seen as being modern and related to present time, reliable and sturdy. The advertising, packaging and merchandising of this range is young, cool and vibrant. Benefit Positioning: Titan offer many deals to differentiate its offering on the basis of superior style and attractiveness which is offered by Digital range fastrack. Competitors Positioning: Titan had to encounter the threat with the entry of several foreign watchmakers into the market; most the entrants are catering to the upper end of the market Omega, Cartier etc. Quality or Price Positioning: In the overseas market, especially in Europe where it is competing with Swiss and Japanese watches, it is position itself as value-for-money (less than Swiss watches and higher than Japanese), by giving attractively styled and of good quality. TITAN WATCHES: BRAND RE-POSITIONING STRATEGIES FOR GLOBALISATION Titan has managed to get fair market in Middle East and Africa but its failure in Europe was a downturn for the Company as the return was not as good as investment made for the expansion. Titan has decided to revamp its flagship watch brand in Europe mainly in UK. Titan wants to reposition it more youthful and relevant to the changing times. Titan has entered the International markets in 1989 through the export of watch movements. Titans first global footprint was placed in the UAE the largest market in the Middle East then it moved towards Egypt, Oman, Saudi Arabia and few markets in Africa. Though it faced strong competition, it reached the sales of 100,000 watches within a year of its launch. It started to move globally and moves towards Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Maldives and Nepal. After its extensive survey, it concluded that it needs good reason to stock the brand. Titan needs to re-position its brand image in the UK market. And so Titan decided to against soft option of driving its globalization through private label exports. It would launch its product under its own brand with market positioning Therefore Titan found a massive advertising campaign to create brand awareness. It also participated in the fair which showcases the worlds biggest watch brand in the world. CONCLUSION: The suggestions to improve consumer awareness about brand repositioning strategy of Titan are as follows: To increase its visibility, Titan Company can sponsor events similar to fashion shows which all latest designs launched are displayed. This is important as it has a great effect on different segments of the customers in different ways. It is important to have Tie up with radio channels and television to broadcast and telecast its advertisement about various sales promotion from time to time. RD needs more investment as customer expectations are changing rapidly. It should focus more on introducing more varieties and luxury items in the market at regular interval. Introduce exclusive collection for working women which is more contemporary and complements any fashion styles. Tie up with international watch brands to make the product stronger in the market. To use internet to spread awareness among consumer about the brand. 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Friday, January 17, 2020

Compare how poets portray relationships in ‘Praise Song For My Mother’ and ‘Ghazal’ Essay

Both ‘praise song for my mother’ and ‘ghazal’ use language devices to portray relationships. They use imagery, metaphors and structure to do so. They bother portray in different ways. ‘praise song for my mother’ portrays relationships as happy and fun whereas ‘ghazal’ portrays them as unpredictable and ever changing. In ‘ghazal’, Khalvati writes a different comparison to love in each stanza. ‘If yours is the iron fist in the velvet glove/if I rise in the east you die in the west’. The fact that Khalvati has done this shows that love is never the same. It also shows that it is constantly changing and can never be predicted. It could also show that the woman’s love for the man is constant the mans love for the woman is unreliable and is constantly changing. On the other hand, in ‘praise song for my mother’ each stanza seems the convey the same thing about love, that it is happy and constant. ‘you were sunrise to me rise and warm and streaming’. The word ‘sunrise’ means that the personas lover was what lit up their day and helped them see clearly. It could also mean that their love was constant and never failed as the sun rises every morning in a continuous pattern. The word ‘warm’ has also been used and this could suggest that they are always nice to each other and never argue. Heat can also be linked to the colour red and this in turn can be linked to love, therefore the persona is indirectly expressing their love for this person without facing it head on. In ‘praise song for my mother’ Nichols has used imagery to portray the relationship. ‘you were the fishes red gill to me’. Nichols has used the word ‘gill’ to show that the persona needed the other person. A fish wouldn’t be able to survive without its gills and this shows that the persona might as well be dead without the other person. Everyone would be able to relate to this as everyone has suffered heartbreak. This would help to keep the interested and mean that they can empathise with the reader. The  word ‘red’ has also been used and love is a connotation of the colour red. On the other hand red can be linked to death and this links back to the persona saying that they are dead without the other person. Similarly in ‘ghazal’ Khalvati has also used imagery to show the relationship. ‘when the arrow flies, the heart is pierced, tattoo me’. The use of the word ‘tattoo’ is the persona saying that their love for the other person is eternal and they never want it to end. Tattoos cannot be changed once they are on your skin and Khalvati’s use of the word could mean that they don’t want the other person to change as she thinks they are perfect as they are. Khalvati’s comparison to an arrow means that her love for the other person was sudden and unexpected. She didn’t know it was coming until it struck her. In conclusion I think that both these poems use mostly the same language devices, but where Nichols portrays relationships as a good thing, Khalvati seems to portray them as a bad thing.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Characteristic Characters In A Tale Of Two Cities By...

Writers have always set out to create realistic characters. Some have succeeded in creating characters with unique goals and personalities while others fail to truly optimize the potential of their characters and instead have relied on some discernible caricatures.For example, from A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens, written in 1858 to Crash, released in 2005, characters have been praised for their originality and criticized for being stereotypical and bland. However while some characters may appear to be caricatures, both Dickens and Haggis were constrained by time and societies explanation, forcing them to rely on some caricatures to make the story more accessible. Both Dickens and Robert Haggis show their potential for creating†¦show more content†¦In there, Dr. Manettes enmity for the the Evremondes continues to grow where he denounces the Evremonde brothers and the rest the Evremonde bloodline until they die out. As the revolution continues to grow, Dr. Manettes is finally given an opportunity to end the Evremonde bloodline. The blood thirsty mob of the rebellion storms La Force, where Charles Evremonde is currently held. The mob detests anyone that had any remote connection to the French Aristocracy and would gladly murder him. Had Dr. Manette not used his influence as a Bastille survivor, Charles would’ve been gored on the street. Despite his hatred for the Evremonde family, Dr. Manette forgoes his past to save the husband of one very dear to him. Finally, Dr. Manette is able move on from the years of hatred in the Bastille, and he personally vouches for the Evremonde at his trial. Ultimately, Dr. Manette ceases to hold the Evremonde bloodline responsible for the heinous actions committed, and had instead works tirelessly to save his son-in-law. Through Dr. Manette, Dickens portrays a character that not only complete contradicts his initial caricature of a vengeful prisoner, but also grows into someone willing to forgive someone who had wronged him. Despite such a strong lead character, where Dickens fell flat, especially for modern readers, was with his female characters, such as Lucie Manette. When we are first introduced to Lucie, sheShow MoreRelatedSAT Top 30 Essay Evidence18536 Words   |  75 Pages(the right to vote) held up Sacajawea as an example of the importance of women to American history. Sacajawea is an excellent example of how historical facts are often distorted and altered to â€Å"prove† points of view or simply to tell a good story. Two of the â€Å"false facts† associated with Sacajawea: The idea that she had a romantic relationship with either Lewis or Clark; and the image that she had almost-mystical powers of navigation because of her American Indian heritage. Regardless of history’s

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Air Pollution Affects Our Environment - 898 Words

Air pollution effects our environment greatly. Air pollution affects things like the animals and people that live anywhere on the planet, but more importantly air pollution affects our ozone layer which protects people from harmful UV rays. If air pollution regulations were better meaning they were stricter then, there would not be as many drastic effects to our environment. Air pollution regulations need to be stricter. The Ozone layer is depleting due to air pollution. This can be caused by the smog that is released from Motor vehicles. â€Å"Motor Vehicles provide our atmosphere with 75% of the carbon monoxide emissions nationwide.† (Epa). The ozone layer is depleting due to the smog and other toxic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. â€Å"The Ozone layer is greatly affected by excessive release of chlorine and bromine. Motor Vehicles are also responsible for nearly half of smog and toxic air pollutants in our atmosphere.† (TheOzone) People who travel by motor vehicles have gone up every year. Also people are buying bigger cars that hurt the environment a lot more than they used to. Another affect air pollution has on our environment is how it is killing animals. Animals that live in our environment are dying because of the effects caused by air pollution. â€Å"Industries can emit large amounts of nitrogen and sulfur gases and those elements can be made into acid rain. They are responsible for about 50% of the pollution. In the U.S. Acid rain is one of the results ofShow MoreRelatedAir Pollution Affects Our Environment963 Words   |  4 Pagesronment? Air pollution affects our environment because it causes health problems, negatively affects the economy, and causes drastic weather changes. Air pollution is one of the world s biggest killers. It is made up of gases that are released into the air in large quantities. These gases are capable of harming humans, animals, plants, and our climate. Approximately two million people die prematurely from air pollution each year. For every person that dies, hundreds or thousands more suffer breathingRead MoreHow Does Air Pollution Affect Our Health And Our Environment?1740 Words   |  7 Pagesvehicles causes hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and ozone to be emitted into the air. These pollutants have negative effects on our health and our environment. Hybrid cars can reduce the amount of pollutants that are emitted from our vehicles because they use much less gasoline than gas-only vehicles. The hybrid car uses less gas and emits less pollution because it has a dual engine, which is part gas and part electric. Honda and Toyota have successfully built hybridRead MorePollution And Its Effects On The Environment973 Words   |  4 Pages Pollution As a society, we have come to understand that pollution is the process of discharging harmful substances into our atmosphere, water or soil. There are campaigns all across the world educating us to the different types of pollution. Humankind has become more aware of the rising problems with pollution and recycling is constant in most households. We know about the effects that pollution has on the environment, but how do the types of pollution affect each other?Read MoreEssay On Air Pollution704 Words   |  3 Pagesaware that air pollution is bad for our environment and detrimental to our health as a human species, they may not be aware of how it affects them and the environment in which they reside. Personally, air pollution affects me in terms of my overall long-term health. When I was younger, I was diagnosed with asthma. I struggled to take breath, especially in an environment that is filled with air pollution. However, as I grew older, my condition began to improve because of maintaining stellar air qualityRead MoreThe Effects Of Air Pollution990 Words   |  4 PagesAir pollution should be addressed more seriously, because it is the deadliest of pollutions killing millions of per year around the world. The pollutants in our environment are mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Air pollution has a massive impact on the environment. It also has an negative impact on the human body. Air pollution can be prevented by performing many simple tasks. Air pollution is extremely dangerous to the human body and the environment and should be dealt with more seriouslyRead MoreThe Effects Of Air Pollution On Our Health And Sustainability1408 Words   |  6 Pagesas the issues that it is causes to our personal health. Air pollution is a large problem that exists in the United States and affects all of us. However, the challenge that we as American’s face is the inescapable necessities of modern life (driving to work, cooking food, etc.). These technologies are directly linked to air pollution and therefore affect our health and sustainability. defines air pollution as, â€Å"the condition in which air is contaminated by foreign substancesRead MoreEffects Of Air Pollution Essay1282 Words   |  6 Pagesmany kinds of pollution, but one that has the most impact on humans would be air pollution. In order to live, we must breathe air and surprisingly some things that we breathe takes a toll on our health. Air pollution occurs when pollutants are released into the atmosphere. It has both chronic and acute effects on human health which effects a number of different systems and organsFossil fuel combustion such as diesel fuel, coal, gasoline and natural gas is the main source of air pollution. Most of thisRead MoreLiving Downstream By Sandra Steingraber856 Words   |  4 Pagesof Living Downstream by Sandra Steingraber, it explains dilemmas of the Atmospheric Circulation affects the environment an d living things. Atmospheric Circulation is the redistribution of air on the earth surface. Additionally, it s the leading problem of pollution around the world. Atmospheric pollution is consisted of chemicals, and toxins into the air. The air that we inhale and exhale isn t in our favor because it is composed with various toxins and different combination of element such as oxygenRead MoreAir Pollution Is A Serious Problem1571 Words   |  7 PagesAir pollution is a very serious problem throughout the world. Exposure to air pollution is easy and it can affect your health. Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth’s atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, and damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment (Air Pollution, 2016, June 27). This definition proves that exposure to air pollution can harm the main thingsRead MoreThe Effects Of Air Polluti on On The Environment Essay755 Words   |  4 PagesBackground and Analysis Air pollution is the infiltration of chemicals or toxic molecules into the atmosphere. In the global context many countries including China, the United States, Mexico, and others are haunted by pollution in the air. However each has a certain degree of air pollution different from the other. Air pollution kills animals and plants by intoxicating our bodies with harmful bacteria and chemicals. Unless our bodies become immune or we learn to clear the pollution earth s ecosystem

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Events Leading Up to the The Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay...

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was enacted on July 30, 2002. It was enacted by the 107th United States Congress. It is named after sponsors U.S. Senator Paul Sarbanes and U.S. Representative Michael G. Oxley. It is also known as the ‘Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act’ in the Senate and ‘Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act’ in the House. The main purpose of this act was to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures made pursuant to the securities laws, and for other purposes. This act was enacted as a result to a number of corporate and accounting scandals including those affecting Enron, Tyco internationals, Adelphia, Peregrine Systems, and WorldCom. The†¦show more content†¦After Enron’s scandal, section 1519 and 1520 are very important parts of the act. According to the section 1519, ‘‘Whoever knowingly alters, destroys, mutilates, conceals, c overs up, falsifies, or makes a false entry in any record, document, or tangible object with the intent to impede, obstruct, or influence the investigation or proper administration of any matter within the jurisdiction of any department or agency of the United States or any case filed under title 11, or in relation to or contemplation of any such matter or case, shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.† Thus this came as a response of Enron’s bankruptcy and its attempt to destroy, falsify and cover up the documents. Enron officials Jeffrey Skilling, Kenneth Lay and Andrew Fastow faced trials and were later convicted of the crimes they committed. Top officials of Enron altered financial documents in order to hide the debt of the company. They misled the shareholders by showing huge profits in the annual financial reports. These high profits helped them to increase their share prices, which resulted in increases in income and investors. According to the reports, their format of financial statement shown to the public was so complicated that it was nearly impossible for anyone to figure out that all these numbers are altered. Before its downfall, Bethany McLean’s Fortune articleShow MoreRelatedSarbanes Oxley Outline676 Words   |  3 PagesThe Ineffectiveness of the Sarbanes Oxley Act In Corporate Management and Accounting In the early 1990s, a young company named Enron was quickly moving up Fortune magazine’s chart of â€Å"America’s Most Innovative Company.† As the corporate world began to herald Enron as the next global leader in business, a dark secret loomed on the horizon of this great energy company. Aggressive entrepreneurs eager to push the company’s stock price higher and a series of fraudulent accounting procedures involvingRead MoreSarbanes Oxley Act Of 2002 Essay1421 Words   |  6 PagesSarbanes Oxley Act Jason Stigal FIN/571 November 6, 2016 James Traylor Abstract Enron’s fraudulent financial practices lead to the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. Mistakes made by the company and their leadership shocked the world and cost billions. Enron’s leadership could have taken steps to prevent or mitigate the repercussions of their actions. The act restored ethical and reliable financial practices to the market.The major provisions of the act made corporations responsibility forRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act ( Sox )1728 Words   |  7 Pagesscandals of all time. They perpetrated over *1 $3.8 billion in fraud, leading to a loss of 30,000 jobs and $180 billion losses for investors . This is one of the several accounting scandals that led to the passing of Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which introduced the most comprehensive set of new business regulations since the 1930’s. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) is an act that was passed by United States Congress in 2002. This act safeguarded investors from the likelihood of fraudulent accounting practi cesRead MoreThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act561 Words   |  2 PagesDrawbaugh and Aubin (2012) took the opportunity with the ten year anniversary of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to analyze whether the act has been effective. Passed in 2002 amid a wave of accounting scandals, Sarbanes Oxley (SOX) was intended to strengthen the accounting, auditing and reporting of public companies and boost investor confidence in the US financial system. The authors note that in general Sarbanes-Oxley has succeeded in its mandate. There have not been, for example, any of the corporateRead MoreCase Study of NYSE1328 Words   |  5 Pagesmembers and directed by a board of corporate officers and directors. It is governed by regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). On March 2004, the organization came under attack since it was revealed that a series of questionable events surrounded the payment of former NYSE chairman Richard (Dick) Grasso. As many as 45 former directors and former employees were subpoenaed over possible violations of NYSE regulations or other regulations that dealt with accountability of an organizationRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley Act Of 20022394 Words   |  10 Pages Jamie Brown Sarbanes-Oxley BLA303 8/24/2014 Abstract The Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 was created to extinguish doubts on the financial system that were introduced during the financial collapse of Enron, a resource trading company that was brought to its need by corporate greed and corruption. Enron’s downfall could have been avoidable should there have been any transparency into the finances of the company for the shareholders. It was for this fact that the Sarbanes Oxley Act introduced manyRead MoreEnron Research Paper3111 Words   |  13 PagesCOLLAPSE OF ENRON amp; THE INTRODUCTION OF THE SARBANES OXLEY ACT BY TREVOR GARRETT 02/25/2011 Abstract Enron Corporation was one of the largest energy trading, natural gas and Utilities Company in the world that was based in Huston, Texas. The downfall of Enron is one of the most infamous and shocking events in the financial world, and its reverberations were felt around the globe. Prior to its collapse in 2001, Enron was one of the leading companies in the U.S and considered among topRead MoreEssay Financial Services Report1177 Words   |  5 Pagesglobal financial system (GFS) refers to those financial institutions and regulations that act on the international level, as opposed to those that act on a national or regional level (Global financial system, 2005, p1). The International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the World Bank are considered to be the most important international institutions. The Internal Monetary Fund acts as a lender of last resort to governments in financial distress, e.g. balance of paymentsRead MoreUnethical Behaviors And Situations Of Conflict Within The Workplace1572 Words   |  7 Pagespsychologist in Denver, once said, â€Å"Just as character matters in people, it matters in organizations† (Forbes). As with any accounting scandal, all it takes to avoid them is a simple, basic knowledge of ethics in the workplace to avoid being caught up in the midst of something undesirable for all parties involved. Enron Corporation used to be one of America’s largest corporations that specialized in the trading and supplying of energy. Enron was best known for their expansion movement, when theyRead MoreThe Sarbanes Oxley ( Sox ) Act Of 20021617 Words   |  7 PagesThe focus of this week’s assignment is the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002. A brief historical summary of SOX will be presented, including the events leading up to its passage. The key ethical components of SOX will be identified and explained. The social responsibility implications of the mandatory publication of corporate ethics will be assessed. One of the main criticisms of SOX has been its implementation costs, and this specific criticism will be addressed in regards to smaller organizations